triggerfish n : any of numerous compressed deep-bodied tropical fishes with sandpapery skin and erectile spines in the first dorsal fin [also: triggerfishes (pl)]
Nountriggerfish (plural triggerfish of triggerfishes)
- any of several brightly coloured fish, of the family Balistidae, that inhabit tropical reefs, and have an erectile spine on its dorsal fin
Triggerfishes are brightly colored fish of the family Balistidae. Often marked by lines and spots, they inhabit warm coastal waters of the Atlantic, Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific.
Anatomy and appearanceTheir size varies from 30 to 75 cm (1 to 2½ ft).
Triggerfish have a roundish, laterally flat body with an anterior dorsal fin. They can erect the first two dorsal spines: the first one locks and the second one unlocks. This prevents predators from swallowing them or pulling them out of their holes. This locking and unlocking behaviour is why they are named 'triggerfish'.
They have a small pectoral fin, fused to one spine. Unlike the spine of a filefish, the spine of the triggerfish can be held in place by a second spine to make the fish more threatening to the predator. Their small eyes, situated on top of their large head, can be rotated independently. They have tough skin, covered with rough rhomboid-shaped scales that form a tough armour on their body. A big, angular-shaped head extends into a snout with strong jaws and sharp teeth, made for crushing shells. Each jaw contains a row of eight teeth, while the upper jaw contains another set of six plate-like teeth.
BehaviorMost are solitary and diurnal. They feed on hard-shelled invertebrates, a few feed on large zooplankton or algae. They lay their demersal eggs in a small hole, dug in the ground. Some species guard their eggs.
A few of the triggerfish species can be quite aggressive during reproduction season. In particular Picasso triggerfish and titan triggerfish viciously defend their circular nests against any intruders, including scuba divers and snorkelers. Their territory extends in a cone shape from the nest to the surface, so swimming upwards puts one further into the fishes' territory. A horizontal swim away from the nest site is the most sensible course of action when confronted by an angry triggerfish. In contrast to the relatively small Picasso triggerfish, the titan triggerfish poses a serious threat to inattentative divers due to its large size and powerful teeth.
Some species of triggerfish are known to make a sound akin to a grunt or snarl when taken out of the water.
- Abalistes Bloch & Schneider, 1801
- Balistapus Tilesius, 1820
- Balistes Linnaeus, 1758
- Balistoides Fraser-Brunner, 1935
- Canthidermis Swainson, 1839
- Melichthys Swainson, 1839
- Odonus Gistel, 1848
- Pseudobalistes Bleeker, 1865
- Rhinecanthus abyssus
- Rhinecanthus aculeatus Picasso triggerfish, lagoon triggerfish (USA)
- Rhinecanthus assasi : Arabian Picasso triggerfish
- Rhinecanthus cinereus
- Rhinecanthus lunula : Halfmoon picassofish
- Rhinecanthus rectangulus: Reef triggerfish or humuhumu-nukunuku-a-pua'a (Hawaii)
- Rhinecanthus verrucosus : Blackbelly triggerfish
- Sufflamen Jordan, 1916
- Xanthichthys Kaup in Richardson, 1856
- Xenobalistes Matsuura, 1981
triggerfish in German: Drückerfische
triggerfish in Dhivehi: ރޮނޑު އާއިލާ (މަސް)
triggerfish in French: Balistidae
triggerfish in Italian: Balistidae
triggerfish in Lithuanian: Raguotinės
triggerfish in Hungarian: Íjhalfélék
triggerfish in Dutch: Trekkervissen
triggerfish in Occitan (post 1500): Balistidae
triggerfish in Polish: Rogatnicowate
triggerfish in Portuguese: Peixe-porco
triggerfish in Finnish: Säppikalat
triggerfish in Swedish: Tryckarfiskar
triggerfish in Chinese: 鱗魨科